Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Herberger's Great Works of God, vol. 2

I would like to take this opportunity to advertise the publication of my translation of parts 3–4 of Herberger's Great Works of God, now available for purchase from CPH. This volume contains his commentaries and Christological insights on Genesis chapters 16–50 (The first volume, with Genesis 1–15, can also be gotten at CPH or Amazon.com.) It's a little later this year than last year, but certainly not ill-timed for those looking for last minute gifts (or observing gift-giving customs until Epiphany)! So, in case you were wondering why the Lutheran Orthodoxy Blog has several posts about this important writer of the period, it is because I, as one of contributing members, have been immersed in Herberger's works for the past 4 years. Here is some of the fruit of that welcome time with this great writer.

Blessed Advent to you.
—Matthew Carver.

Sunday, December 11, 2011

John Sigismund's break with the Lutheran Church

IN THE MARK Brandenburg, the elector John Sigismund, though with an oath he promised his father Joachim Frederick to remain loyal to the Lutheran Church, broke faith in 1613, when on Christmas day he formally entered the Reformed Church. The Augsburg Confession (variata) was retained, but in 1614, the Elector introduced a Calvinistic Confession of his own, the Confessio Marchica, in which the doctrine of absolute predestination was omitted. He could not however get his people to follow him and when radical measures were resorted to, a violent uprising of the masses occurred, which resulted in bloodshed (1615). In 1616, the professors at Frankfort-on-the-Oder were forbidden to teach the communicatio idiomatum and ubiquitas corporis. He also forbade students going to Wittenberg, and finally ordered the formula Concordia to be stricken from the collection of Lutheran symbolical books.

The failure to Calvinize Lutheran countries in this manner, suggested another slower, but surer way, that of union. An agreement was to be reached by means of colloquiums…

(From H.E. Jacobs, The Lutheran Cyclopedia.)

Friday, November 4, 2011

Survey of Herberger's Works


With the upcoming release of the second volume of The Great Works of God, concluding his commentary on Genesis, scheduled to be available on Epiphany (Jan. 6), 2012 (and available for pre-order from CPH), it seemed good to take this portentous occasion as an opportunity to pause and to offer a brief survey of Herberger's body of writing.

By the end of the first quarter of the 17th century, not long after Johann Arndt had died and while Johann Gerhard was still occupied in his great body of writing, Herberger had reached the end of his often-interrupted and yet remarkably busy publishing career, nearly 30 years after beginning. The first, and most subsequent, editions of his books were printed in Leipzig at the once famous press of Fritzsch(e) or Gleditsch (two branches of a once-notable family in that city). Individual funeral sermons and smaller works seem to have been generally handled on a more local basis around Fraustadt, though these were later collected and published en masse in Leipzig as well. The following works have not all been thoroughly examined by the author of this post, but an attempt has been made at least to provide a basic description when possible.

** indicates chief works

[Exposition of Ecclesiasticus in 97 sermons]
The purpose, as hinted in the title, was to expound in a series of sermons a book historically used by the Church as a domestic primer and book of Christian instruction in etiquette and morality. In it, as the title-page suggests, Christians are instructed in wisdom, urged on to virtue, strengthened in faith, corrected in life, and comforted and uplifted in suffering.

**MAGNALIA DEI: de Jesu scripturae nucleo et medulla (12 parts, 1601–1618).
[The great works of God]
Without doubt Herberger’s greatest and most popular work, running several editions through the 19th century, this is a devotional commentary on the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth arranged into "meditations," chapters of varying length. The aim of these devotionals, which Herberger began only with the intention of covering Genesis after the idea was suggested to him while reading Luther’s commentary on that book, was to go sequentially from beginning to end and to show that Jesus is the Center and Substance of the Old Testament. This is apparent even with a glance at the (sometimes loquacious) titles, all of which without exception begin "JESUS…" While at times making reference to traditional typology, Herberger expands on and indeed adds to these his own gleanings of "mysteries" of Christ, wherever something may remind him of Jesus’ person, work, and merit, and so afford his readers profitable material for contemplation. Throughout, he shows himself not only a steadfast Lutheran and Christian doctrinally, but also an able preacher whose words "come from the heart and therefore go to the heart."

After the first volume received so much interest, Herberger was encouraged to continue the series, and did so until he was at last prevented through the accumulation of duties during the plague and Kossak incursions, and at last his death in 1628. The last German edition of Parts 1–4 (Genesis) was printed in 1854. An English translation has been prepared, of which volume 1 (parts 1–2) was published in 2010, and volume 2 (Parts 3–4) will be published this year, from Concordia Publishing House.

The Passionzeiger, or "Passion-Clock," of Jesus Christ, presents a series of homilies on Jesus’ Passion arranged sequentially according to the hours of Good Friday, beginning with Green Thursday (i.e., Maundy Thursday) at 7 PM and ending that same time on Good Friday. According to his usual method, Herberger alternates narration, exposition, and proclamation, sprinkled throughout with prayers, as he examines each "Hour," meditating on the specific sufferings which Christ endured then. The reader is to draw from this the benefit of remembering, at any hour the clock strikes throughout the year, what Christ did in that hour of His Passion for the sake of our salvation. It is also designed to give those who are sick and those who labor good reading and discussion material to pass the long hours of waiting and working, recalling what afflictions Christ suffered, what toils He endured and what loads He bore, to redeem us and bring us to eternal blessedness. Published in Leipzig, 1606ff. in 8º; last German edition was made by Karl Friedrich Ledderhose, 1854.

Das wunderschöne Weihnacht-Evangelium (1607, reprinted 1611).
[The wondrously beautiful Christmas Gospel]
Sermon on John 1, first printed in Leipzig, 1607, in 8º.

Die gebenedeiten Tautröpflein und fruchtbaren Regentröpflein der heilsamen Gnade Christi (1607, repr. 1611).
[The blessed dewdrops and fruitful raindrops of Christ’s healing grace]
Sermon on Isaiah 45, first printed in Leipzig, 1607, in 8º.

Jesus, das edle Herzblümelein (1607).
[Jesus, the noble flower of the heart]

Der theure, werthe Osterschatz des erstandenen Königes Jesu Christi (1608, repr. 1611).
[The priceless, precious Easter-treasure of the risen King Jesus Christ]
Sermons wherein the events of Easter and the resurrected Christ are "paschally, profitably, comfortingly demonstrated from the noble knight Samson’s (1) nuptial honey, (2) stolen clothing and festal garment, (3) wounded Philistines, (4) fresh spring of him who calls [Enhakkore], (5) broken gates in Gaza, (6) and razed chapel of Dagon; from Judges 14–16"; 1st pr. Leipzig, 1608, in 8º.

Jesus, die einige, gute, köstliche Perle (1608, 1611).
[Jesus, the only good, choice pearl]
Presumably on Matt. 13; 1st pub. Leipzig, 1608, in 8º.

Das Himmlische Jerusalem (1609)
[The heavenly Jerusalem]
This is an exposition in ten sermons (each including a proper prayer and benediction) of Revelation 21–22, which seeks to relay what we can know for certain about the admittedly unfathomable Heavenly Jerusalem, where Christians will dwell forever after this life. Herberger seeks to impart comfort and consolation through a Christological view of the Heavenly Jerusalem that avoids anxieties and speculations about what is not explicit in the text, but rather is rooted in the Resurrection and Ascension. The tenth and final sermon concerns what may be expected in hell by those who are excluded from the city. In the dedication to Bartsch of Kottwitz, etc., the author explicitly states that he worked on the book from Easter to Ascension in the year 1609, which year is repeated in the concluding chronogram, "IesV In CorDe Meo habItantIs." First published in Leipzig, 1609–1610, in 8º; last German edition was made by Friedrich Ahlfeld and published by Ernst Bredt in 1858.

Gloria Lutheri et evangelicorum / Des seligen Herrn D. Lutheri u. aller evangelischen Herzen Ehrenkrone (1609).
[Blessed Luther and all evangelicals’ crown of glory]
A sermon providing "thorough, clear, manifest proof that the angel with the eternal gospel in Rev. 14[:6ff.] is a comforting prophecy of that dear man, Dr. Martin Luther, and his evangelical teaching… for the love of all good-hearted friends of Luther in Fraustadt." Preached and written in November of 1608.

Arborum scripturae lucus / Lustwäldlein vornehmster Bäume (1609 or 1610).
[Grove of the greatest trees]
Sermon for the deceased Caspar Rodewald, member of Kripplein Christi, given on 21 Mar. 1610 (Laetare Sunday afternoon = ? 1 year memorial service). Apparently draws from several passages of Scripture dealing with trees in order to form a "grove" of consolation for the hearers; 1st pub. Leipzig, 1609?, 8º.

Das geistliche Wasserkrüglein, etc. (1610)
[The spiritual water-jar…]
A collection of sermons. The spiritual water-jar of samaritan woman of Sychar; King David's refreshing drink; the duke of Bethlehem; pub. Leipzig, 1609–1610, 8º.

Deliciae nominis quasimodogenitorum Dei Patri filiorum / Die herzliche Süssigkeit der Namen der Kinder Gottes… (1610, 1613).
[The heartfelt sweetness of the name 'the children of God']
Sermon(s?) on the title "children of God" in 1 John 3; 1st pub. Leipzig, 1609, 8º.

Herzgrund quillt in Mund S. Pauli und aller frommen Christen (1610, repr. 1613).
[The bottom of the heart spills into the mouth of St. Paul of all pious Christians]
Funeral sermon for Hedwig Meisner (10 Mar. 1610).

Jungfraukränzlein (1610).
Sermon on Revelation 14[:1–5]; "plaited by Valerius Herberger"; Leipzig, 1610, 8º.

*GEISTLICHE TRAUERBINDEN (6 parts, 1611–1621, rev. 1668)
[Spiritual Mourning-bands]
This is a massive collection of Herberger’s numerous, comforting funeral sermons; pub. Leipzig, 1611ff.; revised, enlarged to 7 parts, Leipzig 1668, 4º. The most recent edition (a selection of 32 sermons) was made by K.F. Ledderhose in 1854.

S. Dorotheae Paradies (1612).
[St. Dorothy’s Paradise]
A short treatise on "whence this holy, Christian, blessed virgin Dorothea took her references to the roses and apples of Paradise"; pub. Leipzig, 1612, 8º.

**EVANGELISCHE HERZ-POSTILLE (1613, repr. 1624, 1674).
[Evangelical Heart-postils]
This is a collection of sermons on the Gospels of the Church Year; the last German edition was made by C. R. Bachmann in 1853.

Geographia regionis vivorum / Landtafel des Landes der Lebendigen (1614).
[Map of the land of the living]
Memorial sermon for the anniversary of the death of Emmelia Bucretius (†2 May, 1613); publ. Leipzig, 1614, 8º.

Rosarium beatae virginis / Hochgelobten Jungfrauen Mariä Rosenkrantz (1615).
[Rosy-wreath of the Blessed Virgin]
"Plaited from the story of the Annunciation" (Luke 1:39–56); pub. Leipzig, 1612, 8º.

Ehrenpreis treuherziger Seelensorger (1616).
[The prize of faithful ministers]
Funeral sermon for Dcn. Johann Timaeus of Fraustadt (†1614); pub. Leipzig 1616–1617, 8º.

Liber vitae / Das Buch des Lebens (1616).
[The book of life]
Funeral sermon for publisher Thomas Schürer, †14 Aug. 1615, wherein "the book of life is leafed through with a devout heart, and its comforting script examined"; pub. Leipzig, 1616, 8º.

Der lieblichste und schönste Frauenschmuck Gottseliger Matronen (1618)
[The loveliest and fairest jewel of pious ladies]
Funeral sermon for Dorothea Körber.

Ehrliebender Frauen Herz-Glas (1618).
[The heart-glass of honor-loving women]
Funeral sermon for Anna Mencelius based on Mark 14.

Jesus, omnium medicorum princeps et dominus / Jesus der Herr, mein Arzt (1618).
[Jesus the Lord, my physician]
Funeral sermon for Flaminius Gasto (†5. Feb., inter. 21 Feb. 1618). The title goes on to say of Jesus "…the best, wisest, and most successful doctor, none of whose patients have died"; based on Exodus 15; Leipzig, 1618, 8º.

Lustige Hochzeitsrätzel, -Kuchen, -Brote, und -Fische… (1619)
[Amusing nuptial puzzles, cakes, loaves, and fishes]
On the wedding of Catherina Schürer to Matthias Götz.

Mein Gott, mein Gott: Christi Segen ist mein Leben (1619)
[My God, My God: Christ’s blessing is my life]
On Jesus’ word on the cross, presumably; pub. Lepzig, 1619, 8º.

Baculus et bajulus venerendae senectutis / Aller Gottesfürchtigen alte Leute bester Herzstecken und Troststab (1620).
[The best heart-stick and consolation-staff of all godly, elderly people]
(? Funeral sermon) for Johann Specht; Leipzig, 1620, 8º.

Thränen-Schwämmlein (1620).
Funeral sermon for Eva Nischelck, née Henning, on "the tear-sponge with which God shall wipe away all the bitter and stinging waters of the eyes and hearts of His children in the heavenly Jerusalem"; based on Rev. 21:4. Reprinted as late as 1660.

Arbor vitae / Der Baum des Lebens (1622).
[Tree of life]
Funeral sermon for Dr. Daniel Rindefleisch (Bucretius), personal physician to Archduke Charles of Austria, †26 Jun. 1621.

De signaculo Dei vivi et spectaculo beatudinis fidelium / Spiegel… (1624).
[Seal of the living God and the beatific vision of the faithful]
One of Herberger’s later funeral sermons which was popular in its own right referring to the subject of Rev. 7, on which the sermon is based. Printed on Jan. 19, 1624. It was dedicated Sabine Hopfer, widow of of the lately deceased Matthias Hopfer; the dedication concludes "Anno 1624, in the departing month of winter."

Hochzeitlich Blumen-Feld (1625)
[Nuptial field of flowers]
On the marriage of Margarethe Blumen to Zacharias Schürer (1 Mar. 1625); pub. Leipzig, 1625, 8º.


A few works gathered from Herberger’s manuscripts, either nearly completed or in fact ready for publication, were put out by his publisher in Leipzig, some with the help of his son Zacharias, after his death, and are of such quality as to be generally included in biographies:

**Florilegium ex paradiso Psalmorum / Paradieß-Psalter (1625).
[Flower-garden from the paradise of the Psalms]
Exposition of the Psalms 1–23; originally attached to Magnalia Dei; the last German edition was made by K. F. Ledderhose in 1854.

[Epistolary heart-postils]
Sermon on the Epistles of the Church Year. The last German edition was made by J.T.L. Tauscher in 1840.

**Spicilegium Novi Testamenti / Paralipomena / Geistreiche Stoppelpostille (1715?)
[Spiritual gleaning-postils]
Sermons on the texts of the four Gospels and Acts not treated in other postils, i.e., not appointed for regular feasts and Sundays, hence called "gleanings" or "stubble."

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Gerhard on the Interpretation of Scripture, or, Your pastor is there for a reason

Gerhard, 1610 Loci Theologici, locus 2, ch.1, § 4: “Etenim non tantum verbi sui depositum sanctissimum Deus nobis concredidit, sed etiam ministerium ecclesiasticum inter nos instituit, cuius officium est praecipuum scripturas interpretari: Istud est ministerium Spiritus 2 Cor. III. 8. per quod in omnem veritatem nos ducere cupit, Joh. XVI 13. Spiritum ergo non debemus extinguere, 1 Thess. V. 19.”

For indeed God has not entrusted to us only the holy deposit of His Word, but also instituted the ecclesiastical ministry among us, whose chief duty is to interpret the scriptures. This is the “ministry of the Spirit” (2 Cor. 3:8) through which “he desires to lead us into all truth” (John 16:13). Therefore we should not “snuff out the Spirit” (1 Thess. 5:19).

NB: This is not from the forthcoming volume on the ministry, but from the as-yet untranslated 1610 Loci.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Gerhard, “On the Ministry”

From Gerhard, "On the Ministry," part 1 (forthcoming, 2011), § 61:
(VI) The apostles at first were called by Christ Himself immediately; later He instructed them in His own school, and then sent them out into all the world to preach the Gospel. Matt. 10:1: “Having called to Himself His twelve disciples, He gave them power over unclean spirits.” Verses 5–7: “Jesus sent out these twelve, saying to them: ‘Go and preach,’ ” etc. John 20:21: “As the Father has sent Me, even so send I you.” Matt. 28:19 and Mark 16:15: “Go and teach all nations.” As the apostles were about to write to the churches, they diligently and carefully emphasized their calling in the introductions
to their Epistles to prove that God had sent them and that they were to be considered as legitimate ministers of the church. Hence we have: “Paul, a called apostle” (Rom. 1:1; 1 Cor. 1:1; 2 Cor. 1:1; Gal. 1:1; etc.); “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ” (1 Pet. 1:1).

(VII) By a solemn call, those who succeeded the apostles in the teaching office were placed in charge of the churches that they governed. Acts 14:23: “When Paul and Barnabas had established presbyters for the people of Antioch in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they committed them to the Lord.” 1 Tim. 4:14: “Do not neglect the grace that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy with the imposition of the hands of the presbytery.” 2 Tim. 1:6: “I admonish you to stir up the gift of God that is in you through the imposition of my hands.” 1 Cor. 4:17: “I sent Timothy to you to remind you of my ways, which are in Christ.” 1 Thess. 3:2: “We sent Timothy, our brother and God’s minister in the Gospel of Christ, to strengthen you,” etc.

(VIII) The next successors of the apostles in the teaching office again committed the ecclesiastical ministry, with the consent of the church, to certain men who were indeed suitable. No one was allowed to leap into it by his own authority. 1 Tim. 5:22: “Do not lay hands on anyone quickly, nor participate in the sins of others.” 2 Tim. 2:2: “What you have heard from me before many witnesses commit to faithful men who are fit to teach others.” Titus 1:5: “This is why I left you in Crete, that you might establish presbyters in every town.”

Monday, October 17, 2011

The “Burr”-Quote: Selnecker's Funeral Sermon for Catherine of Mecklenburg

“I will cleave to my Lord Christ 
like a burr to a frock.”

SO SAID LUTHER’S wife, Catherine von Bora, before her death; at least, that’s how the story goes. However, this attribution, so common today, may not go back to more than 150 or 200 years, by a convoluted confusion of Catherines. Though perhaps common knowledge in some parts of the country, and in Germany, I myself was first corrected in this while translating Valerius Herberger’s Magnalia Dei (written between 1600 and 1615), in which the author repeatedly places the quote in question squarely in the mouth of Lady Catherine, Duchess of Saxony. I wondered if he was mistaken (it is possible, I supposed). After some research, I eventually traced both Catherine’s quote and her son’s response to the Nicolaus Selnecker’s sermon made on the death of Lady Catherine (and so successfully vindicated Herberger).

Early in 1586, M. Nicolaus Selnecker delivered his funeral sermon for the committal of Duke Augustus, Elector and son of Catherine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duchess of Saxony, and it was published in Erfurt later that year under the title “Eine Christliche Leichpredigt / Bey dem trawrigem öffentlichem Begengnis des Christlichen seligen Abgangs des Fürsten vnd Herrn AVGVSTI, Hertzogen zu Sachsen / des H. Römischen Reichs Ertzmarschall / vnd Churfürsten / Landgraffen in Düringen… Gethan zu Leipzig den 20. Febrauarij 1586… durch Doct. Nicolaum Selneccerum / Superintendenten daselbs.” [A Christian Funeral-Sermon for the Tragic Public Observance of the Christian, Blessed Departure of the Prince and Lord Augustus, Duke of Saxony, Grand-Marshall and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, Landgrave in Düringen, etc. … Given in Leipzig, on Feb. 20, 1586… by Dr. Nicolaus Selnecker, Superintendent of the same city.] The pertinent section, found on page 25 of this printed edition (see image below), reads as follows:
…And yet another (if your charity will be patient with me): When his Electoral Grace was sixty-one years old, his Lady Mother died in Torgau, being observed before her end to have spoken these words: “I will remain cleaving to my Lord Christ like a burr to a frock.” Now when these wistful words had been relayed to the worthy Elector, he said to the pious old Dr. Johann Neefe and to the court-preacher, who was present at the time, “God help me so at my last moment too! By His grace I too will remain cleaving to Him and confess my Lord Christ. If He will but let me be a hobnail on His shoe for eternal life, I am content.”
What splendid, profound, Christian words, not woven from reason, nor arisen from flesh and blood, but wrought and implanted in the heart of believers by the Lord God through the Holy Ghost. Would to God far more such beautiful, glorious Christian thoughts and sayings of our most worthy Elector might have been recorded by those who heard them daily…

(Article and translation by Matthew Carver, 2011) 

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Cyriacus Spangenberg, Luther’s Harp on the Catechism

Cyriacus Spangenberg, Cithara Lutheri zum Katechismus (Erfurt: 1581; reprint, Berlin: Enslin, 1855).

Cyriacus Spangenberg (1528–1604) sided with Matthias Flacius in the debate on original sin that arose after Luther’s death (see Formula of Concord, article I). As a Lutheran pastor, he had the duty not just of teaching the “Holy Catechism,” but of preaching it. In this work, Spangenberg uses Luther’s catechism hymns as the framework for his catechism sermons. He gives 12 sermons on the Ten Commandments, 3 sermons on the Creed, 9 sermons on the Our Father, 1 sermon on Baptism, and 3 sermons on the Sacrament of the Altar. (The other parts of the Catechism are omitted.)

From the first verse of “These Are the Holy Ten Commands” (cf. Lutheran Service Book 581) he derives six points:

1. What kind of a teaching the Law is.

2. Wherein God’s Law is summarized and comprehended.

3. To whom the Law was given.

4. Who gave it.

5. Through whom.

6. Where, or in which place.

The Law predominates in this sermon. I suppose that could be expected, since it's about the Law. Let's go on to the 6th commandment. Here he derives two points:

1. How one should rightly live in the estate of marriage.

2. How it can come about that this takes place more easily.

Every point has many subpoints, each a short paragraph long. He's obviously preaching from an outline. Besides preaching against unchastity, he also handles gluttony and drunkenness. He does mention Jesus in this one, but since it's a sermon on a commandment, the Law predominates.

Let’s go on to one of the hymns on the sacraments. From the hymn “Jesus Christ, Our Blessed Savior” (cf. LSB 627), he derives two points:

1. The institution of this sacrament.

2. Its true use.

He divides these two into two sermons. In the sermon on the first point he deals with these topics:

a. Who the founder of this sacrament is. (And this is subdivided into "name" and "work.")

b. Why He instituted it.

c. What He distributes and gives in it.

Spangenberg preaches on these hymns actually by using them as springboards to list and subdivide various aspects of the catechetical teaching. He brings in Scripture passages and deals with objections of opponents, just as you would expect when teaching or learning the catechism. This is basic Christian teaching, and it demonstrates how to impart teaching and doctrine to one’s hearers in a way that, hopefully, engages them.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Johann Gerhard, Theological Commonplace On the Ministry, part 1

The sixth volume of Gerhard’s Loci Theologici, containing the commonplaces On the Ecclesiastical Ministry and On Political Magistracy, first appeared in print in 1619.[1] The years leading up to 1619 were Gerhard’s first years as a professor of theology at Jena, yet he had been active in the pastoral ministry for ten years before he came to Jena in 1616. On June 5, 1606, he was called to be pastor and superintendent of Heldburg by Duke Johann Casimir of Coburg.[2] Four years later, in December 1610, Gerhard had made his report of an inspection of the churches and schools of Heldburg and had come to conclusions about how they needed to be improved.[3] Having successfully carried out this task, he was given the duty of conducting a general inspection of all of Johann Casimir’s lands in Thuringia and Franconia in 1613.[4] By 1615, Gerhard had become general superintendent (the functional equivalent of a bishop) in Coburg and had written a church order, the “Church Order of Johann Casimir,” which was later published in 1626.[5] This church order included chapters on many of the same topics that appeared in Gerhard’s commonplace On the Ecclesiastical Ministry, such as the call, examination, ordination, investiture, and pastoral duties. Of course, during his ministry he had already begun writing his Theological Commonplaces. A new volume of this grand work was published every few years, starting in 1610.

Aside from his pastoral work, Gerhard had dealt with the doctrine of the ministry in various disputations and shorter books prior to the appearance of his commonplace on the ministry.[6] The centennial of the Reformation gave Gerhard the opportunity to reflect on the call and ministry of Martin Luther in several writings,[7] just as he included a chapter on Luther’s call in his commonplace On the Ecclesiastical Ministry (§§ 118–26).

The first part of Gerhard’s commonplace On the Ecclesiastical Ministry (§§ 1–189) deals especially with the ministers: their necessity, call, ordination, transfer, removal, etc.[8] The second part (§§ 190–375) deals especially with the work of the ministry: differing duties and rankings within the office, preaching, administering the Sacraments, administering church discipline, caring for the poor, as well as the payment and marriage of ministers.

Just as Gerhard usually begins his commonplaces with a discussion of terminology, so also here a few of his terms require explanation for the English-speaking reader. For Gerhard, “public ministry” is a general term not just for churchly service but also for political office. It is called “public” because it benefits the people or the public. Gerhard does not use “public ministry” as a synonym for the “ecclesiastical ministry” (§ 8). “Pastor” in Latin is usually the head minister of a congregation or cluster of congregations. Sometimes the word means “bishop.” But assistant ministers often had other names. Among German-speaking Lutherans, the terms used were often Pfarrer (literally, “parson”) for the head minister, and Prediger (“preacher”) or Diakonos (“deacon”) for an assistant minister. Another common word for a minister of the church is “presbyter,” which is often translated “elder” in English translations of the Bible. Gerhard uses the term to mean a minister who has pastoral care over a congregation but is not a supervisor of other ministers and congregations. An “elder” (Latin, senior) is a lay leader.

Two of Gerhard’s terms, however, are laden with ambiguity. Sometimes he uses the word “presbytery” (presbyterium) to mean the ministerium of the church, or a gathering of the church’s clergy (§ 156). But sometimes he uses it to mean a regional council consisting of ministers and lay leaders, a “consistory” (§ 87). The reader must be careful to see how Gerhard uses the term in each context.

The term doctor (“teacher”) is also somewhat ambiguous. In modern English the word “teacher” usually connotes a schoolteacher, especially at the pre-collegiate level. Gerhard does not deal with such teachers in this commonplace, and the term doctor does not refer specifically to them. He does speak about schools and schoolteachers in his church order, however, and there the main terms for a schoolteacher are praeceptor [“preceptor”] or docens [“docent”]; doctor is not used.[9] Usually Gerhard uses the term doctor to mean simply “one who teaches,” and in the context of this commonplace it is usually the same as a “presbyter” (that is, a minister of the church). However, in chapter III, section XI, it means a “doctor,” one who has the academic degree of doctor of theology. The distinction is seen in § 138 (4), where Gerhard distinguishes the promotion of doctors, which includes the power to teach anywhere, from the call of pastors and “teachers” [doctores], whose call is to a certain place.

An important chapter of this commonplace deals with the call to the ecclesiastical ministry. Gerhard argues against the Anabaptists and Photinians that, according to Scripture, a legitimate call is necessary before one may carry out the pastoral functions of preaching and administering Sacraments (§§ 54ff.). The “Photinians” were seventeenth-century Unitarians, sometimes called “Socinians” after their leader Fausto Sozinni (1539–1604). By calling them “Photinians,” Gerhard and others were drawing attention to the similarity of their teaching with that of the ancient heretic Photinus (d. 376), who viewed Christ as a mere man and denied the personality of the Holy Spirit.

Two aspects of Gerhard’s doctrine of the call have drawn criticism and caution. First, Gerhard emphasizes that the call to the ministry is a call restricted to a certain place. By emphasizing the uniqueness of the apostolic office, he does not seem to make room for any office of missionary or evangelist in the present church (§ 220).[10]

Second, Gerhard redefines the doctrine of the three estates (church, state, and household) in a way that led to secular state control of the church (the so-called landesherrliche Kirchenregiment). The differences between Gerhard and the first generation of reformers are subtle. When Luther speaks of the “three estates” or “three hierarchies,” he means the three divinely established areas of human responsibility.[11] One of these estates is the church, in which one is either a preacher or a hearer, or assists the preachers in some way. The other two are the state and the household, where there are different positions. People can belong to multiple estates at the same time. For example, a man could be a husband and hold church office as well. Thus Luther’s doctrine of the three estates is a doctrine of social ethics. But sometimes Luther names more than three estates, and when he does so, he speaks of offices or positions of responsibility held by individuals, for example, the “estate of priests.”[12] So for Luther “estate” sometimes means the institution or area of responsibility (e.g., the church) and sometimes it means the office or officials within that area of responsibility (e.g., the pastors). What remained true for Luther and the other reformers is that the church itself is made up, in essence, of hearers and preachers of God’s Word.[13]

Gerhard, on the other hand, takes the three estates and uses them not just as areas of social ethics, but as parts of the church. Instead of dividing the church just into preachers and hearers, Gerhard adds rulers (§§ 2, 85).[14] Gerhard’s argument is based on the Old Testament, where kings were established by God to guard the people and protect the temple and true worship of God. Despite the fact that kings and rulers played no role in the call process in the New Testament, the secular magistrate was due a role now that he had become Christian (§ 86). This mixing of church and state had tragic consequences after Gerhard’s time. Princes converted to other confessions and forced their churches to come along. When pastors preached against the vices of rulers, they could be dismissed from their church and sent into exile.

But is Gerhard to blame? Gerhard’s position on church governance is usually described as Protestant “episcopalism,” a manner of church government in which the secular ruler takes the place of the bishop and so governs the church. Yet this description is a simplification.[15] Although his modification of the doctrine of the three estates did legitimize the authority of the secular ruler within the church,[16] Gerhard intended to argue instead for a church governance balanced between the Christian magistrate, the clergy, and the laity. He argues for a consistorial church government, in which the clergy and lay representatives or “elders” exercised church discipline, served as a court of appeals, made call assignments, etc., on a regional basis (§ 87). Yet in reality, the secular ruler often appointed both the lay and the pastoral representatives to such consistories, and thus the laity’s voice in particular was suppressed by the voice of the secular rulers.[17]

Is Gerhard to blame? Actually, Gerhard’s position on church government was an attempt to limit the influence of the secular rulers. Gerhard faced politicians who claimed the right to rule the church and remove ministers who displeased them at will. This claim was based on the legal transferal of episcopal rights from Roman Catholic bishops to the princes of the Augsburg Confession in the Treaty of Passau in 1552 (§ 108). Lutheran rulers had become emergency bishops.[18] Against absolutist claims, Gerhard emphasized the rights of the whole church, since the church is more than just the secular ruler (§§ 174, 369).[19]

Along with the call, Gerhard also deals at length with ordination in this commonplace. Here he sometimes distinguishes ordination from the ceremony of the imposition of hands, but not always. On one side, Gerhard states that ordination was used by the Lord Jesus to put the apostles into office, though without the imposition of hands (§ 141), and it was used by Paul to put Timothy into the ministry (§ 62). In fact, Gerhard says, the imposition of hands bestows gifts of the Holy Spirit (§ 143) and commits the ministry to a man (§§ 62, 68). In these statements, Gerhard is considering ordination as part of the call process. On the other side, Gerhard denies that there is any divine command to use ordination, denies that the spiritual gifts given through the imposition of hands are necessary for the performance of pastoral functions, and denies that ordination is a sacrament in the strict sense (§ 139). In these statements, Gerhard is considering ordination as distinct from the call and emphasizing that it does not bestow a power to perform the ministry, as was claimed by his main opponent, the Jesuit Robert Bellarmine.

This first part of Gerhard’s commonplace On the Ecclesiastical Ministry ends, fittingly, with a consideration of the people affected by the ministry, or the object of the ministry: “the Lord’s flock, entrusted to the care and protection of shepherds” (§ 189). This consideration of God’s people will lead Gerhard in the second part of this commonplace to discuss the means by which the sheep are fed and guarded.

Benjamin T. G. Mayes

For more information, go to www.cph.org.

[1]Johann Gerhard, Locorum theologicorum . . . tomus sextus: In quo continentur haec capita: 26. De ministerio ecclesiastico, 27. De magistratu politico (Ienae: Typis & Sumptibus Tobiae Steinmanni, 1619).

[2]Georg Berbig, D. Johann Gerhards Visitationswerk in Thüringen und Franken (Gotha: Th. Herm. Wechsung, 1896), 5.

[3]His report of the visitation is printed in Berbig, D. Johann Gerhards Visitationswerk, 32–36.

[4]Berbig, D. Johann Gerhards Visitationswerk, 5–6.

[5]Martin Honecker, Cura religionis Magistratus Christiani: Studien zum Kirchenrecht im Luthertum des 17. Jahrhunderts, insbesondere bei Johann Gerhard, Jus Ecclesiasticum 7 (München: Claudius Verlag, 1968), 43; Ordnung Wie es in deß Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Johann Casimiri Herzogen zu Sachsen, Gülich, Cleve und Berg, Landgraven in Thüringen, Marggraven zu Meissen, Graven zu der Marck und Ravenßburgk, herrn zu Ravenstein etc. Fürstenthumb und Landen, Orts Francken und Thüringen, in den Kirchen, mit Lehr, Ceremonien, Visitationen und was solchen mehr anhängig, Dann im Fürstlichen Consistorio, mit denen verbotenen gradibus in Ehesachen und sonsten, auch im Fürstlichen Gymnasio, so wol Land: und Particular Schulen, gehalten werden solle (Coburgk: Forckel, 1626).

[6]Disputatio Theologica. De Ministerio Ecclesiastico (Coburg: Bertsch, 1610); Aphorismi Succincti Et Selecti, In Viginti Tribus Capitibus, totius Theologiae nucleum continentes: Ad Usum Disputationum Scholasticarum (Jena: Steinmann, 1611); and Disputationum Bellarmino oppositarum Secunda Continens Controversiam De variis sacrorum librorum editionibus (Jena: Steinmann, 1618), a mistakenly titled collection of disputations that included one on the ministers of the church.

[7]Beati Lutheri ad Ministerium & Reformationem legitima vocatio Vindicata (Jena: Steinmann, [1617]); “Die Andere Evangelische Jubelpredigt/ Aus dem 14. Cap. der Offenbahrung Johannes,” in Drey Christliche Frewden- Lehr- und Lobpredigten/ In den angestelten Feyertagen des gehaltenen Jubelfests/ daran die Kirchen/ so von dem Römischen Bapstumb/ aus sonderbarer grosser Gnade des Allerhöchsten durch trewen Dienst des thewren hochbegabten Mans Gottes Doctoris Martini Lutheri zu der Apostolischen Klarheit und Warheit des heiligen evangelii kommen seynd/ ihre Danckopffer dem Könige aller Könige gebracht haben (Jena: Steinmann, 1618); “Oratio Jubilaea II,” in Jubilaea Academiae Jenensis Festivitas Celebrata Orationibus Quinque . . . anno à restitutâ Evangelii luce seculari publicè . . . habitae sunt (Jena: Steinmann, 1618), fols. 15–27;

[8]An excellent overview of Gerhard’s position on these issues is given by Martti Vaahtoranta, Restauratio Imaginis Divinae: Die Vereinigung von Gott und Mensch, ihre Voraussetzungen und Implikationen bei Johann Gerhard (Helsinki: Luther-Agricola-Gesellschaft, 1998), 189–90, 193–99.

[9]Ordnung, Wie es in deß Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Johann Casimiri . . . Fürstenthumb und Landen . . . in den Kirchen . . . und Particular Schulen, gehalten werden solle (Coburgk: Forckel, 1626), 2:338–39, 348–53.

[10]See Klaus Detlev Schulz, Mission from the Cross: The Lutheran Theology of Mission (St. Louis: Concordia, 2009), 264–68.

[11]Confession Concerning Christ’s Supper (1528), LW 37:364–65; On the Councils and the Church (1539), AE 41:176–77; Circular Disputation on the Right of Resistance Against the Emperor (1539), WA 39/2:42; cf. FC SD XII 9.

[12]SA III XI 1; SC Table of Duties; Paul Althaus, The Ethics of Martin Luther, trans. Robert C. Schultz (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972), 36–38; cf. SA Preface 10; Ap XXII 13.

[13]SA III XII 2; Philip Melanchthon, The Chief Theological Topics: Loci Praecipui Theologi 1559, trans. J. A. O. Preus, 2nd ed. (St. Louis: Concordia, 2011), 241, 515.

[14]Martin Honecker, Cura religionis Magistratus Christiani: Studien zum Kirchenrecht im Luthertum des 17. Jahrhunderts, insbesondere bei Johann Gerhard, Jus Ecclesiasticum 7 (Munich: Claudius, 1968), 76–78.

[15]Honecker, Cura religionis, 137–38, 150.

[16]Honecker, Cura religionis, 74–75, 141.

[17]Martin Honecker, “Theologie unter der obrigkeitlichen Cura Religionis Christianae,” in Wissenschaftliche Theologie und Kirchenleitung: Beiträge zur Geschichte einer spannungsreichen Beziehung für Rolf Schäfer zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Ulrich Köpf (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001), 85–120, here at 103.

[18]Herbert Immenkötter, “Augsburg, Peace of,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, vol. 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 91–93.

[19]Honecker, “Theologie unter der obrigkeitlichen Cura Religionis Christianae,” 102; Johann Anselm Steiger, “Kirchenordnung, Visitation und Alltag: Johann Gerhard (1582–1637) als Visitator und kirchenordnender Theologe,Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte 55, no. 3 (2003): 227–52.